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Anuradhapura August 18, 2009

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The sacred city of Anuradhapura, now in picturesque ruins, was once a major center of Sri Lankan civilization. The fascinating ancient ruins include huge bell-shaped stupas built of small sun-dried bricks, temples, sculptures, palaces, and ancient drinking-water reservoirs.

Although people may have lived in this area since as early as the 10th century BC, Anuradhapura became a great city after the arrival of a cutting from the Bodhi Tree (’tree of enlightenment’), the Buddha’s fig tree, in the 3rd century BC. The sacred branch was brought to Sri Lanka by Sanghamitta, the founder of an order of Buddhist nuns.

Anuradhapura went on to become a Ceylonese political and religious capital (4th century BC) that flourished for 1,300 years. In its prime, Anuradhapura ranked alongside Nineveh and Babylon in its colossal proportions—its four walls, each 16 miles (26 km) long, enclosing an area of 256 square miles (663 km²)—in the number of its inhabitants, and the splendour of its shrines and public buildings.

The city also had some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. Most of the great reservoir tanks still survive today, and some many be the oldest surviving reservoirs in the world.

After an invasion in 993 AD, Anuradhapura was permanently abandoned. For centuries, the site lay hidden in the jungle. Rediscovered by the British in the 19th century, Anuradhapura became a Buddhist pilgrimage site once again.

The revival of the city of Anuradhapura began in earnest in the 1870s. The modern city (population 40,000) is a major road junction of northern Sri Lanka and lies along a railway line. The headquarters of the Archaeological Survey of Ceylon is in Anuradhapura.

Today, the splendid sacred city of Anuradhapura, with its palaces, monasteries and monuments, draws many Buddhist pilgrims and visitors.
What to See

There is much to see at Anuradhapura, including the sacred Bodhi tree, eight major palaces, monasteries and monuments.

The Sri Maha bodhiya is perhaps the oldest living tree in the world. Around 245 BC, Sanghamitta Theri brought with her a branch of the Bodhi Tree under which the Buddha attained enlightment. The tree was planted on a high terrace about 21 feet (6.5 m) above the ground and surrounded by railings. Today, the tree is one of the most sacred relics in Sri Lanka, respected by Buddhists all over the world. A wall was built around the tree during the reign of King Kirthi Sri Rajasingha, to protect it from wild elephants.

Ruwanwelisaya. After defeating the Tamil king Elara, King Dutugemunu of Sri Lanka built this magnificant stupa. The stupa is known as Ruwanwelisaya, Mahathupa, Swarnamali Chaitya and Rathnamali Dagaba. The compound is supported by stone elephants, and the surrounding wall is decorated with 1,900 figures of elephants – 475 on each side. Successive kings added to the palace over the years.

Thuparamaya. Thera Mahinda himself introduced Theravada Buddhism and also chetiya worship to Ceylon. At his request King Devanampiyatissa built Thuparamaya in which was enshrined the collarbone of the Buddha and is considered as the first dagaba built in Sri Lanka, after the introduction of Buddhism. This chetiya was built in the shape of a heap of paddy. This dagaba was destroyed from time to time. During the reign of King Agbo II it was completely destroyed and the King restored it. What we have today is the construction of the dagaba, done in 1862 AD. As it is today, after several renovations, in the course of the centuries, the monument has a diameter of 59 ft (18 m), at the base. The dome is 11 feet 4 inches (3.45 m) in height from the ground, 164½ ft (50.1 m) in diameter. The compound is paved with granite and there are 2 rows of stone pillars round the dagaba. During the early period vatadage was built round the dagaba.

Lovamahapaya is situated between Ruvanveliseya and Sri Mahabodiya. It is also known as the Brazen Palace or Lohaprasadaya. In ancient times the building included the refectory and the uposathagara. (Uposatha house). There was also a simamalake where the sangha assembled on poya days to recite the formula of the confessional]. The famous Lohaprasada built by King Dutugemunu described as an edifice of nine storeys, was a building of this class. One side of the building was 400 ft (120 m) in length. As the roof was covered with tiles made of bronze, this was known as the Brazen Palace. There are 40 rows, each row consisting of 40 stone pillars and a total of 1600 stone pillars were used for the building. It is believed that it took 6 years for the construction of the building and the plan was brought from the heavens. The building was completely destroyed during the reign of King Saddhatissa.

Abhayagiri Dagaba. King Valagamba ascended the throne in 103 AD. He waged war with the Tamils and was defeated. When he fled, a Nigantha named Giri shouted words of derisive mockery at him. Later the king collected an army attacked the Tamils by slaying the last of their leaders, and recovered the throne he had lost. It is said that he demolished Nigantaramaya (the temple of the Niganthas) and built the Abhayagiri Vihara in the same premises. Shortly after this event, the monks of the Mahavihara took disciplinary action against one of the bhikkus of the Abhayagiri Vihara, for violating a rule of the vinaya. Thereafter the bhikkhus of the Abhayagiri Vihara founded a separate sect there. King Valagamba’s reign is marked by an important event – the first schism in Buddhism in Ceylon. Most learned bhikkhus lives in Abhayagiri Vihara. It consisted of a large library. It is recorded that during the reigns of King Voharakatissa and King Gothabhaya this library was destroyed and the heretical monks driven away. King Parakramabahu renovated Abhayagiri Vihara, then the height is said to have been 140 cubit]s. In the year 1875, Abhayagiri Vihara which had a diameter of 307 feet (94 m) at its base, stood to a height of 231 feet (70 m). The relics of the Buddha are said to have been enshrined in a figure of a bull made out of thick gold.

Jetavanarama. King Mahasen (273-301 AD) built this largest stupa in Ceylon, and possibly the whole world. A part of a sash tied by the Buddha is believed to be enshrined here. Its height is said to be 400 feet (120 m). This is considered as the largest stupa in the whole world. This stupa belongs to the Sagalika sect. The compound of the stupa is 8 acres (3 ha). One side of the stupa is 576 feet (176 m) in depth. The 4 flight of steps at the four sides is 28 feet (8.5 m) in depth. The doorpost to the shrine which is situated at the courtyard is 27 feet (8 m) in height. It is a foot (0.3 m) underground. There are some stone inscriptions in the courtyard with the names of donors inscribed.

Mirisaveti Stupa. King Dutugamunu after defeating King Elara, built the Mirisaveti Stupa. After placing the Buddha relics in the scepter, he had gone to Tisawewa for a bath leaving the scepter. After the bath he returned to the place where the scepter was placed, and it is said that it could not be moved. The stupa was built in the place where the scepter stood. It is also said that he remembered that he partook a chilly curry without offering it to the sangha. In order to punish himself he built the Mirisavetiya Dagaba. The extent of this land is about 50 acres (20 ha). Although the king Kasyapa I and Kasyapa V renovated this, from time to time it was dilapidated. What stands today is the renovation done by the cultural Triangle Fund.

Lankarama was built by King Valagamba, in an ancient place at Galhebakada. Nothing is known about the ancient form of the stupa, and later this was renovated. The ruins show that there are rows of stone pillars and it is no doubt that there has been a house built encircling the stupa (vatadage) to cover it. The round courtyard of the stupa seems to be 10 feet (3 m) above the ground. The diameter of the stupa is 45 feet (14 m). The courtyard is circular in shape and the diameter is 1332 feet (406 m).

Isurumuniya is situated near Tisawewa and was built by King Devanampiyatissa to house 500 newly-ordained children of high caste. King Kasyapa I (473-491 AD) renovated this viharaya and named it as “Boupulvan, Kasubgiri Radmaha Vehera”. This name is derived from names of his 2 daughters and his name. There is a viharaya connected to a cave and above is a cliff. A small stupa is built on it. It can be seen that the constructional work of this stupa belong to the present period. Lower down on both sides of a cleft, in a rock that appears to rise out of a pool, have been carved the figures of elephants. On the rock is carved the figure of a horse. The carving of Isurumuniya lovers on the slab has been brought from another place and placed it there. A few yards away from this vihara is the Magul Uyana.

The ancient Magul Uyana is situated close to Isurumuni Vihara and Tissawewa and contains several ponds. There are remains of small cells, seats made of stone steps, and taps of aesthetic sense. According to legend it is believed that Prince Saliya met Asokamala in this garden. The largest pond in this garden is 31 x 55 ft (9.5 x 17 m) in length and breadth. This is not a place of worship. [edit] Vessagiri About half a mile (1 km) to the south of Isurumuniya is situated Vessagiri on a mountains region. Scattered are 23 caves made of stone. Above the caves are inscribed the names of donors. These are the oldest inscriptions in Ceylon written in Brahmi script.

Rathna Prasadaya was built by Kng Kanittha Tissa who ruled Ceylon from 167-186 AD. It is known that during the 8th and 10th centuries Mihindu II and Mihindu IV renovated that building. The bhikkhus of the Tapovana belonging to the Pansakulika sect resided here. Beautiful guard stones of the Abhayagiri Viharaya were found here. The Queen’s Palace, containing the largest and the most beautiful moonstones, is near Ratna Prasadaya.

According to an inscription, the Dakkhina Stupa was constructed by Uttiya, a Minister of King Valagamba. For sometime by an error it was considered as Elara’s tomb. King Kanittha Tissa had build an alms hall, King Gottabhaya built an uposathagaraya, where the bhikkhis assembled for the ceremony of confession, while King Agbo I constructed a large building. The Bhikkhus of the Sagalika sect resided here. The most popularly known fact is that this stupa was constructed on the tomb of King Dutugemunu. Human bones that were collected were sent to France and according to the scientific analysis it was revealed that these ashes belong to King Dutugemunu.

Sela Cetiya is one of the 16 main places of worship and is situated to the west of Jetavanaramaya. This was constructed by King Lajjitissa who ruled in the first century BC. The diameter of the base of the stupa is 37½ feet (11.4 m). This stupa has been given this name as the platform and stupa has been constructed in stone. A moonstone and guardstones can be seen here.

Naka Vihara is a square-shaped stupa built of bricks. This is constructed according to an unusual model and would have been similar to the 7 storeyed building (Satmahal Prasadaya) in Polonnaruwa. Excavations done in this place reveal that there were several clay caskets.

Kiribath Vehera. The remains of this vihara shows that it is 30 feet (10 m) in height and the circumference is 425 feet (130 m). The date of construction and the king who built it, is unknown. In close proximity to this are the ruins of an image house. There is controversy whether the Pattamaka Chetiya built by King Devanampiyatissa is one and the same.

The most magnificent specimen of bathing tanks is the pair known as Kuttam Pokuna at Anuradhapura, near Abhayagiri Vihara. The garden which separates these 2 ponds is 18½ ft (5.6 m). The larger of this pair is 132 ft in length and 51 ft in breadth (40 by 15.5 m), while the smaller is 91 feet long, the breadth is the same (28 by 15.5 m). The depth of the smaller pond is 14 feet (4.3 m) and the larger pond is 18 feet (5.5 m). The sides and the bottom of the ponds were faced with well cut granite slabs. Round the pond is a magnificent wall. Leading to the pond are a beautiful flight of steps on both sides, and decorated with “punkalas” and scroll design. There were underground ducts bringing water into these ponds and others emptying them. A wall is built to enclose the ponds, and inside it is a small compound.

Samadhi Statue, in the Mahamevuna Park, is one of the best pieces of sculpture on the site. The statue is 8 feet (2.4 m) in height and made of granite and the Dhyana mudra is symbolished – The posture of meditation in which Buddha sits in the cross-legged position with upturned palms, placed one over the other on the lap. [edit] Toluwila Statue Which has a close resemblance to the Samadhi statue at Anuradhapura, was found among the ruins in a temple at Toluwila in Anuradhapura. It is 5′9″ (1.75 m) in height. The gap between the knees is 5′9″ (1.75 m). The width between the shoulders is 3′5″ (1.04 m). At present this statue is placed near the main entrance to the Colombo Museum.

In the sacred city of Anuradhapura and in the vicinity are a large number of other ruins. These have not been identified properly and many have been destroyed either by Tamil invaders or by vandals. Neither tourists nor pilgrims havepaid much attention to these ruins and information regarding this is meager.


Father of Information and CommunicTechnology in Sri Lanka. July 14, 2009

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Father of Information and
Communica Technology in
Sri Lanka.

Professor V.K.Samaranayaka is a land mark figure when talking about the information and
Communication Technology in sir lank. He is
Regarded as the father of the field of ICT in sir lank a.
He was born in 1939 and studied in Rajagiriya Hewawitharana Vidalia, Anada College and Royal College in Colombo. Having finished his school educationprof.samaranayaka entered the University of Ceylon in 1957. He was a brilliant student there in 1961 he was awarded a first class honours degree in Mathemat ics In the same year he joined the University of Colombo as an assistant lectu rer in Mathematics. In 1966 he was awarded the ph. D degree by the University of London.

It is professor Samaranayaka who introduced computer technology to the University of Colombo in 1987. Since then he has dedicated his whole life for the improvement of ICT in this small island. Even before that, as in 1981 he taught computer technology to his students using the one and only computer available which was a total stranger to sir lanka’s education system. Prof. Samaranayaka ’dsdevotion to the field of computer education and his devotion to his students is always remembered by his students who, today, are responsible for the future of ICT in Sri Lanka.

THE TWINS July 14, 2009

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What have you done now It must have been you Sumitra with your good for nothing friends drinking in the cattle shed and making all that noise in the night which kept him awake kept him awake and annoyed him Or it must have been you she said pointing a fat sausage finger at her husdand You hardly spoke to him you scted high and mighty and treated him like dirtHe should take offence He has left gong like the eind without even fold ing the mat slept on such things have never happ ened I this house brfore and he my oen son in law my only daughter s husdand Is he not one of us now How could you do this to him

Do what asked sumitra her son assuming a nonchalant attitube
Sumitra you rascal you are no son of mine and mind you don y call me mother afted this

The little woman was provoked and was buming inside liside like a firebrand .

යුරෝප ඡාතීන්ගේ බල ව්‍යාප්තිය May 29, 2009

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මෙම ඵ්කකය තුළින් යුරෝපීන් යටත් විඡිත පිහිටුවා ගත් ආකාරයන් ඹවුන් එහි ක‍වැඩකළ ආකාරය හා තම ස්තානවල ආගම වි්‍යාප්ත කළ ආකාරය පිළිබද ව සාකචිචාකෙරේ      මෙහි දි අපි මුලින්ම යුරෝපීන් මුහුදු යානා ගවෙිශනවලට යෙමුවීමට බලපෑ හේතු විමසා බලමු 1953 දී නැගෙනහිර රෝම අදිරා්‍යයේ අග නුවර වු කොන්ස්තන්තිනෝපලය තුර්කි ඹටෝමාන්වරැන්ගේ මුස්ලිමිඅදිරාඡ්‍යයට යටත් විය කොන්ස්තන්තිනෝපලය මෙි වන විට වැදගත් වූයේඑයපෙර අපර දෙ දිග වෙළද සමිබන්දතා ගොඩනංවන මූලික වෙළද මද්්‍යස්ඵානය වූ බැවිනි             15වන සියවස වනවිට යුරෝපය මද්‍යතන යුගයෙන් නූතන යුගයට අවතීර්න වී‍ෙමිදි සමාචඡ ආර්තික දෙහපාලන හා සංස්කෘතික ඇතිවු වෙනස්වීමි සමග අනුකමනයෙන් එහි ඡාතික රාඡ්්‍ය බිහිවුනි එසේ මුලිංම බිහිවු ඡාතික රාඡ්‍ය අතර සංස්ඤ්ඤ්ය පෘතුගාලය එංගලංතය හා ඹිලංදය යන රටවල් සදහංකර හැකිය ඡාතික රාඡ්‍යතම ශක්තියහා බලය ව්‍යාප්ත කරගැනිම සදහා මුහුදු යාතික ගමං සදහා අනුගහය දැක්විය

හෙල විකුමි පෑ කීර්ති කුමාරයා May 16, 2009

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එදා 1949 පොසොන් පොහෝ දිනයයි එදින අනුරාදපුරයට දහස්ගනනින් ඡනතාවරැස්වුහ  සැමගේම කතාබහට ලක්වු‍ෙය් පලමුවන විඡයබාහුරඡුය ලංකා‍ ඉතිහාසයේ මහත් ආංදෝලනයටලක්වු තඹසන්නසක් එදිනඑහි ප්‍රදර්ශනයවිය  මොරවක්‍ කෝරලයේ පනාකඩුව නමිගමෙි සුරවිරගෙ කරෝලිස් අප්පුහාමි නැමැති ගොවියෙක්ට තම වගාවසකස්කිරිමෙි දි  මෙිතඹසන්නසහමුවිඇත ‍ෙසෙන්නයනයේ සදහන්වුයේ විඡයබාහුරඡවරයා විසිණදංඩනායක බුදල්නාවන් නමැති ප්‍රදානියෙක්ට පවරනලදයමි යමි වරප්‍රසාදය ලංකාවෙි වරින්වර විදේශවලින් පැමිනි ආකුමනියන් විසින්යටත්කරලංනාලදි අපේ මුලම රාඡදානියවන අනුරාදපුර රාඡදනිය යුගයේ ඉංදියාවෙං පැමිනි සොලිහු ලංකාවආක්‍රමනයකර අවු හැත්තැ හතකටපමන කාලයක් මෙහි පාලනයගෙනගියහ මෙකාලයතල දි අනුරාදපුරයෙහි පැවැතිරාඡදානිය පොලොංනරැවටගෙන ගියහ මෙිකාලයෙහිරැහුනසිංහරඡුන්යටතේ පාලනය ගෙනගියද ඹහුසෝලිංට මුහුනදිරටනිදහස්කරගැනිමට අපොහොසත් වුහ යටත්කරගංනට ඹවුංටනොහැකිවියතිර්තිනමිං හැදිංවු ෂහුවිරකමරැවකරහුනෙංබිහි වුයේ මෙවන්වකවානුවක මොග්ග්ලාින හෙවත් මුගලංසහසාමි සහ ලෝකිතා යනමාපියංට දාව ඉපනුකමරැගේළමාතාලය සවපහසු වෙන්ගතනෛාවුනේ එසේනොයෙක් කමිකටුලුවලිංතහන වුවක් වියඑකලසොලි පාලකයං

My self May 11, 2009

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I take great pleasure in introducing my self. I am jeewan pubudu. i study at G/Batuwangala Maha Vidyalaya. i am learning of Grade 10. I live in Batuwangala, Neluwa It situated in Galle district. My target is to pass the 2010 O/L exam. i have no brothers and one sister. My mother’s name is Mrs. pushpa. she is a very kind heated. she is a house wife. My father is wikramanayaka. he is a farmer. he is an innocent villager.. i love my parents. i like to learn I.C.T. My favorite subject is English. My school is near the Sinharaja rain forest. There is a water fall called “Duuliella”. it’s very beauty full. I like to eat Banana.
My birth day is 1995.01.22 I do sports and learning English.
Aruna Chaminda Pushpa Kumara is my computer teacher.
His village Is Gall. My hobbies are reading Navels, rowing picture and collecting pictures.
I am 14 years old. I like to swim in ‘Gingaga’. I want to be a cricket coach.

My village

Sri Lanka is an island nation of 62,705sq Km with a multi-ethnic, multi-religious population of almost 20 million of which 80 percent live in rural areas. Sri Lanka is administratively divided into nine provinces and 25 districts. ICT facilities are mainly focused in urban areas and have not spread to the rural areas to a satisfactory level.

Within the Southern Province too there is a significant disparity in the level of development and access to technology between the urban and rural areas. Rural communities experience difficulties regarding most services especially within the ICT sector. While the state has made several interventions in this area and has provided some facilities it is not sufficient. Awareness, knowledge, and access to ICT facilities in rural communities continue to be very low.

click here batuwangala logo visit batuwangala e village web site